Botany is the optional subject in UPSC, BPSC, MPPSC, UPPSC and others State PCs Exams, which are divide into two papers Paper 1 and Paper 2. This is scoring subject in UPSC and State PCS exams From answer writing point of view.

Botany is the Science subject so here you need only Scientific terms as botanical name, Classification, Taxonomical Character, Plant Physiological, Genetics, Biotechnology, Biochemistry and ecological Terms during of answer writing.

In science subjects if answers describe with Scientific Terms, Figure and Graphical Diagram Students can score good marks in her/him exam which are not only in UPSC or PCS also in College Exam or Others Competitive Exams.

Paper 1st Book List
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology BuY Book
2. Text Book For Angiosperms By B.P Pandey
3. College Botany Vol 1, 2, 3
4. Embryology of AngiospermsBuY Book
Paper 2nd Book List
1. Cell And Molecular Biology By P.K Gupta
2. Cell And Molecular Biology By Gerald KarpBuY
3. Genetics ConceptBuY
4. Cytogenetics, Evolution, Biostatics & Plant BreedingBuY
5. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and BiostatisticsBuY
6. Plant PhysiologyBuY
7. Ecology and Plant GeographyBuy Book 1 | Buy Book 2

Botany Optional Syllabus

Botany Optional PAPER I

1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology

Structure and reproduction or multiplication of viruses,viroids, bacteria, fungi and
mycoplasma, Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and
in control of soil and water pollution, Prion and Prion hypothesis.

Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes
Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease
resistance or defence, Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.
Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.

2. Cryptogams & Phanerogams

Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from
evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological
and economic importance.

3. Gymnosperms Concept of Progymnosperms. Classification and distribution of
gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales,
their structure and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales
and Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques.

4. Angiosperms Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency.
Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical
taxomomy and chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and

Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of
classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families— Mangnoliaceae,
Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae,
Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae,
Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae
and Orchidaceae.

Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary
growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood

Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm—
its development and function. Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony,
apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen
storage and test-tube fertilization.

5. Plant Resource Development

Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres
of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils,
drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose,
starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context;
Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

6. Morphogenesis Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplastculture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variationand its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.

Botany Optional PAPER-II

1. Cell Biology

Techniques of cell biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells—structural and
ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall)
and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport;
Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER,
dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes,lysosomes, peroxisomes; Cytoskelaton and
microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and
nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction Mitosis and
meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in
chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of
genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes—structure, behaviour and

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution

Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles);
Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic
inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over of gene mapping including
molecular maps (idea of mapping, function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked
inheritance; sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation;
Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and
cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of
gene expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution-evidences,
mechanism and theories.
Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics

Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree,
backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and
heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic
engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety
aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and
techniques—probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH.
Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test,
t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and
Poisson). Correlation and regression.

4. Physiology and Biochemistry

Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies.
Photosynthesis—photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon
fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of pholem transport,

(anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)—electron transport chain and
oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP
synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism.
Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of
secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and
phytochrome). Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization,
senescence; Growth substances—their chemical nature, role and applications in
agri-horticulture; growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat,
water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and
germination of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular basis and manipulation.

5.Ecology and Plant Geography

Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant
succession. Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its
control (including phytoreme-diation); Plant indicators; Environment
(Protection) Act.

Forest types of India—‘Ecological and ecomomic importance of forests, afforestation,
deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories,
Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network;
Convention of Biological Diversity, Farmers’ Rights; and Intellectual Property
Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles. Global
warming and climatic change; Invasive species; Environmetal Impact Assessment;
Phytogeographical regions of India.